Boyle’s Law:
If
the temperature (T) remain constant, the volume (V) of a
given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the
pressure (P)
or
PV= constant at a given temperature
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Charle’s Law
(a)
If the
pressure (P) is held constant, the volume (V) of a given
mass of gas varies directly as the absolute temperature
(T)
(a)
If the
volume (V) is held constant, the pressure (P) of a given
mass of gas varies directly as the absolute temperature
(T)
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Gas Law:
PV = RT
R is universal gas constant
R = 847.97 m kgf/kg mol ˚K
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Enthalpy of an Ideal Gas:
The
property of enthalpy, H is defined as:
where
U=internal energy of an ideal gas
P=pressure
V=total volume
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Specific Volume:
or
where,
v=specific volume, m^{3}/kg
x=quality of the mixture
1x=moisture fraction of the mixture
=specific Volume of dry and saturated
steam at a particular pressure, m^{3}/kg
=specific volume of saturated water, m^{3}/kg
= change in specific volume during
evaporation
=
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Entropy of Steam
Change in entropy during heating of water and its
evaporation into steam is given by
where,
=change in entropy
C=specific heat
=I for steam
T_{1}=initial temperature
T_{2}=final temperature
Ts=steam temperature
X=dryness fraction at final state of steam
L=latent heat
Latent
heat of fusion=80 kcal/kg
Latent
heat of evaporation=539.6 kcal/kg
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Flow Energy:
Flow
energy=work done by a system
= pv
where,
p=pressure
v=AΔd for unit mass
A=area of piston
Δd=displacement
Internal
energy =u (for unit mass flow)
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Law of
Thermodynamics
First
Law: When a system undergoes a thermodynamics cycle
then the net heat (Q) supplied to the system from its
surrounding is equal to the net work(W) done by the system
on its surrounding.
In symbols,
Second Law: It is impossible for a heat engine to
produce net work (W) in a complete cycle if it exchanges
heat only with bodies at a single fixed temperature.
Net heat supplied = Net work done
Thermal efficiency
It can
be seen that the second law implies that the thermal
efficiency of a heat engine must always be less than 100%.
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Thermal Expansion of Solids:
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Thermal Conductivity:
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Latent Heat of Fusion and Vaporization:
where, H = quantity of heat required or
liberated, cal
m = mass of a given substance to
be fused or solidified, g
L_{f
}
=
latent heat of fusion, cal/g
L_{v}
= latent heat of vaporization, cal/g
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Black
Body Radiation:
where, E = energy radiated per second
by a body, cal/cm^{2}.s
T = absolute temperature, ˚K
K = proportionality constant
= difference in energy radiation
T_{1} = absolute
temperature of cold body, ˚K
T_{2} = absolute
temperature of hot body, ˚K
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Newton’s Law of Cooling:
By
expanding the quantity in parenthesis and neglecting for small temperature difference, we
find
Kinetics
Theory of Gas:
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Specific
Impulse:
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Solar
Radiation:
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Convective Heat Transfer:
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Radiation Heat Transfer:
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Conduction Heat Transfer:
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